Home Baking Association
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A Baker's Dozen:
The “baker’s dozen” refers to providing 13 baked items for the price of 12 and originated as a way to avoid shortchanging the customer. Bakers who shorted (cheated) customers could be punished severely—such as losing a hand to an axe! This allowed that one of the 13 could be lost, eaten, burnt, or ruined in some way, leaving the baker with the original legal dozen. The practice can be seen in the Baker Guild codes of the Worshipful Company of Bakers in London, 12th century.
  Absorption:
A characteristic of flour to take up and retain
(hold) water or liquids. It is determined by measuring the
amount of liquid needed to make dough of the desired
consistency. It is expressed in a percentage (lbs./liters of water
needed per pound/kilo of flour).
  Acidic:
pH of less than 7. Acid ingredients react with bases
to form salts and water. They have a sour taste. A chemical
compound that yields hydrogen ions when in solution.
  Acid Salt:
A dry, granular white crystal that dissolves in water
before acting as an acid. The acid salt reacts chemically with the
bicarbonate to release CO2 gas. The type of acid salt used in
the baking powder can determine the rate of gas release. The
most common acid salts in home baking powders are:

Sodium aluminum sulfate NaAl(SO4)2

Monocalcium phosphate Ca(H2PO4)2
  Aerate, Aeration:
To whip, sift or beat air between particles,
as with flour, confectioners sugar, or sugar and butter.
  Agave nectar:
An amber, caloric liquid sweetener, with a low glycemic index, that is made from the core of the succulent agave plant available in two distinct varieties: Light and Amber. Learn more at www.dominosugar.com and www.chsugar.com
  Agriculture:
The science and art of growing crops and raising
livestock; farming.
  Alkaline:
pH greater than 7. Alkalis such as baking soda
(bicarbonate of soda) neutralize acids and react with acidic
ingredients as a leavener. Alkalis have an excess of hydroxyl
ions when in solution.
    All-purpose flour:
Wheat flour milled from hard wheat or a
blend of soft and hard wheat. Used in homes for some yeast breads, quick breads, cakes, cookies, pastries and noodles. All-purpose flour may be bleached or unbleached. Both may be enriched with four vitamins (niacin, riboflavin, folic acid, and thiamin) and iron. Resources: www.homebaking.org
 

Altitude:
(above 3,500 ft.), adjustments may be needed in
baking, cooking time, temperature and recipes. For example:

• Water boils at 212˚ F below 2,000 ft. and more quickly from
3,000 to 10,000 ft. (208˚-194˚ F.).

• Food requiring boiling (pasta, eggs, pudding/pie filling)
will take longer to cook.

• Leavening gases in breads and cakes expand more at high
altitudes. Yeast breads will rise faster—use slightly cooler
liquids to slow fermentation; punch down twice.
Flour will be dryer and more absorbent at altitudes—use slightly less.

• Cakes may need slightly less baking powder (1/8 to ¼ tsp),
less sugar (1 to 3 tbsp. per cup) and a little more liquid (1
to 4 tbsp. per cup).

• Increase baking temperature slightly, 15 to 25° F.

• Egg whites: beat only to soft peaks, not stiff.

(More at High Altitude Baking Series. Colorado State U.
Extension. www.cerc.colostate.edu and www.kingarthurflour.com)

 

Amaranth flour:
Milled from amaranth seeds, it combines well with other flours for

smooth-textured quick breads. It has an assertive flavor and especially complements savory breads or pastries. Its lack of gluten means it must be combined with wheat flour in yeast breads.

  Altitude:
(above 3,500 ft.), adjustments may be needed in
baking, cooking time, temperature and recipes. For example:

• Water boils at 212° F below 2,000 ft. and more quickly from
3,000 to 10,000 ft. (208°-194° F.).

• Food requiring boiling (pasta, eggs, pudding/pie filling)
will take longer to cook.

• Leavening gases in breads and cakes expand more at high
altitudes. Yeast breads will rise faster—use slightly cooler
liquids to slow fermentation; punch down twice.

• Flour will be dryer and more absorbent at altitudes—use
slightly less.

• Cakes may need slightly less baking powder (1/8 to ¼ tsp),
less sugar (1 to 3 tbsp. per cup) and a little more liquid (1
to 4 tbsp. per cup).

• Increase baking temperature slightly, 15 to 25° F.

• Egg whites: beat only to soft peaks, not stiff.

(More at High Altitude Baking Series. Colorado State U.
Extension. www.cerc.colostate.edu and www.kingarthurflour.com)
  Apron:
A cloth or plastic cover garment bakers wear for both food sanitation and to protect clothing.
  Ascorbic acid:
The scientific name for vitamin C; it is used in bread flour for its gluten development properties. It conditions the dough to obtain a better loaf volume.
 

Artificial Sweetener:
Non-nutritive (contain no nutrients), high-intensity sugar substitutes (See Lab Seven).

  Artisan (Baker):
Skilled craftsman or trade; baker who produces bread or bakery goods using production methods that are part hand-made. Often refers to European crusty breads or low-ratio cakes and desserts.
Top     Bake:
Cooking food in dry heat, especially in an oven.
  Baker's % Formula:
Ingredient weight divided by total flour weight X 100 = bakers% for that ingredient.
Ex: 3 lb water divided by 5 lb. flour X 100 = 60% water.
  Baker's Percent:
In baking formulas primarily based on flour,
each ingredient’s weight is measured as a percentage of the
total flour weight (100 percent). See box below.

Sample Formula
Bakers Percent


Ingredients Bakers % Weight
Flour* 100.0 5lbs
Water 60.0 3lbs
Yeast 3.5 2.8oz
Veg. Oil 3.5 2.8oz
Sugar 3.0 24oz
Milk Solids 2.5 2.0oz
Honey 2.5 2.0oz
Molasses 2.0 1.6oz
Salt 2.0 1.6oz
*May be bread, whole wheat, or blend.
100%=total flour weight

  Baking mix:
A combination of pre-measured baking dry ingredients (Ex: flours, meal, leavening, sugars, salt, spices).
  Baking pan:
Baking pan Available in a variety of shapes and sizes for baking specific cakes, cookies, biscuits, breads, pies, and specialty goods. Most pans sold today are made from light- to heavy-gauge steel, except for two-layer, insulated baking pans, which are heavy-gauge aluminum. Most test kitchens use midgauge aluminum pans to formulate standards for baking time, temperature, and even baking/browning.
  Baking powder
A leavening agent containing both baking soda and one or two acids - citric or tartaric. It reacts without acid from the other ingredients when wet and when it becomes hot. The baking powder used at home is "double-acting" because it has two types of acid - one reacts when liquids are added in the bowl and the other reacts when it becomes hot during baking. Carbon dioxide is the gas produced that "lifts" the batter and makes a light product in the end. Test for strength by mixing one teaspoon baking powder with 1/4 cup very hot water. Mixture should bubble furiously.
  Baking sheet:
A sheet of metal that is rigid and is used for baking cookies, breads, biscuits, etc. It usually has one or more edges that is turned up for ease in removing from the oven. Types include shiny, heavy-gauge aluminum, the standard used in most test kitchens for even baking and browning. Darkened, heavy-gauge pans will produce especially crisp exterior crusts desired for specialty baked goods. Insulated baking sheets are two sheets of aluminum with air space between, and are especially good for soft cookies or tender-crust breads or rolls. Also, see Cookie sheet, Insulated bakeware, and Jelly roll pan glossary listings.
  Baking soda
A base, alkaline in nature, formed when sodium carbonate (purified form of mineral trona) is mixed with carbon dioxide and water to form sodium bicarbonate.

Na2CO3 + CO2 + H20 + NaHCO3
sodium
carbonate
  carbon
dioxide
  water   sodium
bicarbonate

Baking soda is the source of CO2 gas in leavening systems. It
neutralizes acids in the batter, adjusting the final pH of baked
goods. Baking soda is not the same as baking powder.
  Baking stone:
A round or rectangular plate of stone or unglazed, tile-like material used to provide the baking qualities of a brick oven floor. The stone is placed on the lowest oven rack. Follow the manufacturer's directions regarding whether preheating the stone with the oven is recommended. The product to be baked or the product in its pan are placed on the stone to bake.
  Barbados sugar:
Also known as muscovado sugar. A British specialty brown sugar; it is very dark brown and has a strong molasses flavor. 

Types of Sugar
. How Well Do You Know Sugar? P.8 www.sugar.org 
 
  Batard:
A long loaf (thicker and stubbier than a baguette).

Batter or Dough?
Other ingredients plus the ratio of liquid to
flour help determine if it’s a batter or dough.

Liquid to Flour

Pour batter: 1 to 1
Drop batter: 1 to 2
Soft dough: 1 to 3
Stiff dough: 1 to 4
Source: www.baking911.com
  Barley flour:
A low-gluten flour made from hulled barley. It imparts a sweet taste, moisture, and relative lightness to cakes, cookies, and quick breads.
  Batch:
One recipe of a dough or batter, such as bread or cookies.
 

Batter:
Thin mixture of flour and water that can be poured or spooned into pan or on a griddle.

Batter or Dough?

Other ingredients plus the ratio of liquid to
flour help determine if it’s a batter or dough.

Liquid to Flour

Pour batter: 1 to 1
Drop batter: 1 to 2
Soft dough: 1 to 3
Stiff dough: 1 to 4

Source: www.baking911.com

  Beat:
Making a smooth mixture by whipping or stirring with a wire whisk, spoon, beater or electric mixer.
  Bench:
The counter or surface bakers use to work with dough.
  Bench Time:
Allowing yeast dough 5 to 15 minutes resting time after fermentation, punching, dividing and before shaping to allow gluten to relax.
  Biga:
Italian pre-ferment, see Pre-ferment.
  Bind:
To thicken or smooth out the consistency of a liquid.
  Biscuit:
A small tender, flaky quick bread, usually leavened with baking powder or using self-rising flour and is usually a savory (not sweet) hot bread served with meals.
  Bittersweet Chocolate:
Baking chocolate containing a minimum of 35% chocolate liquor (See Chocolate IQ Chart, Lab 11)
  Blend
To mix two or more ingredients together with a spoon, whisk, electric mixer, blender, or processor.
  Bloom:
  • Bread: In bread baking, bloom refers to the attractive, brown color of the crust of a well-baked loaf of bread.

  • Chocolate: Pale, grayish streaks or blotches on the surface of chocolate indicating the cocoa butter has separated from the chocolate. It indicates the chocolate was stored in too warm an environment, but it can still be used.
  •   Boil:
    To cook in liquid that is heated until bubbles rise to the surface and break. Bubbles form throughout the mixture. Temperature: 212° F or 100° C (Also see Altitude).
      Boule (Miche):
    Round loaf; taut skin stretched perfectly over a dome of bread dough, sealed on the bottom.
      Bread:
    Baked foods produced from dough made of flour, water, salt and other optional ingredients, and leavened by yeast or other leavening agents.
      Braid:
    To weave together three or more long pieces of dough.
      Bran:
    The outer layers of a kernel of grain that lie just below the
    hull. “Miller’s bran” is produced during milling when the bran
    layers are removed from the grain kernel. About 14.5 percent
    of whole wheat flour is bran. Bran is used in baked goods and
    cereals to add dietary fiber and nutrients. (See Whole Kernel
    diagram, p. 170)
      Bread flour
    Unbleached, wheat flour that is higher in protein
    (11% or more) for better yeast bread dough development and
    preferred for use in bread machines. Look for bread flour that is
    enriched – as indicated on the ingredient label.
     

    Bread scoring
    1. Evaluation of finished baked product to
    determine quality. 2. Slashing the surface (top) of loaves to
    allow for expansion as the loaf is baked.

      Break:
    The rough portion of the bread crust formed during oven spring between the pan’s edge and the curve of the loaf’s top. Break may occur on both sides or one side only.
      Breakfast:
    (n.) Breakfast is the first meal of the day, taken in the morning before undertaking the day's work. Among English speakers, "breakfast" can be used to refer to this meal, or, less commonly, to refer to a meal composed of traditional breakfast foods (eggs, oatmeal, pancakes, sausages, etc.) served at any time of day.
      Brown:
    To give a cooked surface to a food (such as meat or flour) by applying high heat. Also occurs during baking and roasting.
      Brown Sugar
    Sugar crystals coated in a molasses syrup with natural flavor and color.  May be produced by boiling a special molasses syrup until brown sugar crystals form, then centrifuging the crystals until dry.  

    Types of Sugar. How Well Do You Know Sugar? P.8 www.sugar.org  
      Brownie
    A dense, chewy, cake-like cookie that is generally chocolate-flavored and colored (hence the name) and cut in bar shapes to serve.
      Buckwheat flour:
    A gluten-free flour made by grinding hulled buckwheat seeds. It is not a relative of wheat. Originating in Russia, buckwheat has a distinctive flavor and is used in pancakes and some baked goods, such as multi-grain breads. Russian blini are made with buckwheat flour. Groats and kasha also are produced from buckwheat.
      Bulgur:
    Whole-wheat kernels that have been steamed, dried, and cracked. Bulgur may be soaked or cooked and added to baked goods. Bulgur also may be ground into flour.
      Butter:
    Butter is produced by churning cream into a semi-solid form. By U.S. standard definition, it
    is 80 percent milk fat, with the remaining 20 percent consisting of water and milk solids. Butter for baking may be salted or unsalted and is valued by most bakers for its irreplaceable flavor and ability to create flaky layers, crispness, tenderness, carry flavors, and provide golden-brown color.
    Visit: www.landolakes.com.
     

    Butterhorn roll:
    See Crescent roll

    Top     CO2:
    Carbon dioxide; the gas released from leavening reactions and fermentation that creates bubbles and space in a batter or dough.
      Cacoa:
    (kuh-KOW) Tropical evergreen tree cultivated for its seed pods from which cocoa powder and cocoa butter are produced.
      Cake Flour
    Fine-textured, silky flour milled from soft wheat, with a low protein content for making cakes, cookies, pastries and some breads.
      Canning & pickling salt:
    A pure granulated salt, with no additives or free-flowing agents. It may be used the same as table salt in baking recipes. It may cake when exposed to greater than 75 percent relative humidity. Also, see Salt glossary listing.
      Capping:
    When yeast loaves are under-proofed and the interior pushes up the top crust leaving a rough, sharp edge along the side of the loaf having the appearance of a “cap.”
      Carmelization:
    To heat sugar until brown and a characteristic
    flavor develops; occurs at 300˚ F. Celiac Disease A hereditary autoimmune disease where gluten adversely affects the small intestine. Numerous other
    symptoms will vary among people. It is lifelong, sometimes fatal, and those affected must avoid wheat, rye and barley. Estimates indicate it affects approximately 1 percent of the U.S. population; many go undiagnosed. Blood tests can be done although they are not 100% accurate. An intestinal biopsy is
    the gold standard for detecting celiac disease. Celiac Sprue Association. 1-877-CSA-4CSA www.csaceliacs.org
      Cereal grain:
    Cereal refers to grain and foods derived from them; the word cereal comes from Ceres, a pre-Roman goddess of agriculture. Also see Grain.
      Chemical leavening:
    The reaction of a leavening base (such as baking soda) with a leavening acid (such as sodium aluminum sulfate) in the presence of moisture and heat to produce carbon dioxide gas.


    NaAl(So4)2 + NaHCO3 NaX + H2O + CO2
    (Acid Salt) (Soda) (Heat &
    Moisture)
    (Neutral Salt)
      Chill:
    Make mixture or cooking bowl cold by placing in refrigerator or in ice.
      Chocolate:
    From the Aztec word xocolatl meaning bitter water.
    A food derived from the cacao bean being fermented, dried,
    roasted, ground and processed into cocoa powder and a liquor
    used to make a variety of chocolate products: Bittersweet,
    dark, couverture, milk, semisweet, white, unsweetened. (See
    Lab 11, Chocolate Chart)
      Chop
    Cutting food into small bits before adding to dough or as a topping.
      Clarify:
    To make a substance clear or pure.
      Cloverleaf Roll:
    Dinner rolls shaped by placing three small
    equal-sized balls of dough in a greased muffin cup and
    proofing until light before baking. (See Lab 12)
      Coat:
    To thoroughly cover a food with a liquid or dry mixture.
      Cocoa:
    see also Cocoa powder.
      Cocoa butter:
    The portion of fat in the cacao bean.
      Cocoa powder:
    Unsweetened cocoa powder made from
    cacao beans that are fermented, dried, roasted, and cracked.
    The nibs (small pieces) are ground to extract about 75 percent of
    the cocoa butter – a thick paste which is called chocolate liquor.
    This is dried and ground to powder. In baking, Dutch process
    cocoa has been further treated with an alkali to neutralize cocoa’s
    natural acidity, and the recipe should be followed for leavening
    directions. Cocoa mix (mixture of milk, sugar,
      Coarse:
    Refers to the crumb structure of some baked goods.
      Coarse Salt:
    Large crystals of salt, such as Kosher, rock salt,
    some sea salts, pretzel salt. (Also see Lab 10)
      Combine:
    To mix or blend two or more ingredients together.
      Conditioned Raisins:
    Moistened raisins before mixing into a batter or dough to prevent the raisin from grabbing moisture from the mixture or baked product, making the baked product
    crumbly. How to condition raisins: Cover raisins in tap water (80º F.) for 5 to 10 minutes; drain off water. Measure raisins needed; place remainder in sealable food container or bag. Store refrigerated. More at www.LoveYourRaisins.com.
      .Confectioners' or powdered sugar:
    A granulated sugar that has been crushed into a fine powder. A small amount (about 3 percent) of cornstarch is added to prevent clumping.
      Consumer:
    A person who buys goods or services for his or her own needs and not for resale.
      Convection cooking:
    A method of cooking in which a fan continuously circulates heated air in the oven cavity while foods are cooking. Advantages are that some foods cook faster and larger quantities of food can be cooked at one time. The user has the flexibility of using multiple racks at the same time. Frequently, it is recommended to reduce the recipe temperature when using convection.
      Convection oven:
    A gas or electric oven equipped with a fan that continually circulates the hot oven air around the product. Circulating hot air allows products to bake on several racks at one time. Oven temperature can usually be reduced by 25°F
    and preheating may be unnecessary.
      Cookie
    A flour-based, sweet, hand-held small cake (from the Dutch word "koekje," meaning "little cake").
      Cookie pan:
    A flat, rectangular baking pan made of steel or aluminum that is rigid. All four sides feature a 5/8- to ¾-inch side to prevent cookies from sliding off the edge, as well as to make removal of the pan from the oven easier. In home baking, jelly roll pans also are sometimes called, or used as, cookie pans.
      Cookie sheet:
    A flat, rectangular baking pan made of steel or aluminum that is rigid. Sizes range from 10 x 8 inches to 20 x 15 inches. A cookie sheet is designed with two, non-edged sides so cookies can slide off either side for easier removal.
      Cool
    To let food stand until it no longer feels warm to the
    touch. Baked goods are cooled on wire racks to avoid soggy
    bottom crusts; cool baked goods before wrapping and storing.
      Cooling rack:
    A rectangular grid of thick wire with “feet” that
    raise it above the countertop. They are used to cool cakes,
    cookies, and other baked goods when they come out of the oven.
    Products are cooled while in their pan for a short time and after
    the product is removed from the pan prior to storing or freezing.
    Yeast breads are removed from the pans and onto the rack as
    soon as they come out of the oven to prevent a soggy crust.

    TIP: Remove baked goods from pans and cool on wire
    racks to 90-100° F. internally. Wrap and store.
      Core:
    Remove the seeded, inner portion of a fruit.
      Corn bread
    Quick bread in which half or more of the flour
    used is white or yellow cornmeal. It may be thin and crisp or
    thick and light. In addition, popular types are hush puppies,
    Johnnycakes and spoon bread. See DIY, www.homebaking.org
      Corn flour:
    Flour milled from whole corn, it has the flavor
    of corn and is excellent in cornbread, muffins, waffles, and
    blended with cornmeal. Sometimes refers to corn starch.
      Cornmeal
    Dry de-germinated or whole grain corn kernels
    (yellow, white or blue varieties are grown) that have been
    ground into fine, medium or coarse meal.
      Corn starch
    The fine, powdery flour obtained from the endosperm of corn used as a thickener for pie fillings and puddings; in combination with wheat flour in cakes, cookies, pastries, it produces a fine-textured product. Cornstarch may be referred to as cornflour in some recipes. More at www.argostarch.com.
     

    Corn Syrup
    Corn syrup is a mildly sweet, concentrated solution of dextrose and other sugars derived from corn starch. It is naturally sweet and is not the same as High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS).

    Corn syrup contains between 15% to 20% dextrose (glucose) and a mixture of various other types of sugar. Corn syrup has 60 calories per tablespoon, 20 calories per teaspoon.

    Light corn syrup (clear and colorless) – a mixture of corn syrup
    flavored with salt and pure vanilla. Lite Karo clear corn syrup is also available with 33% fewer calories and no high fructose corn syrup.

    Dark corn syrup A mixture of corn syrup and a small amount of
    refiners’ syrup (a cane sugar product with a molasses-like flavor).
    Caramel flavor, sodium benzoate (a preservative), salt, and
    caramel color are added. Dark corn syrup has a rich brown color
    and distinctive flavor.

      Courverture chocolate:
    Professional quality glossy coating
    chocolate. (See Chocolate IQ Chart, Lab 11)
      Cream:
    also creaming. To work (with spoon or mixer) one or
    more foods until soft and creamy.
      Cream of Tartar:
    An acidic salt—potassium hydrogen tartrate (also referred to as tartaric acid); stabilizes beaten egg whites and leavens some baked goods.
      Crepe:
    (KRAYP) The French word for pancake; paper-thin, flexible egg-rich pancakes used to wrap or fold around sweet or savory ingredients as a first or main course.
      Crescent roll:
    Also called a Butterhorn roll; a thin, triangular wedge rich yeast dough rolled from wide end to point.
      Crumb:
    The interior of baked goods—not the crust; interior texture formed by air cell pockets trapped inside a webbing of starch and protein gelatinized by baking.
      Crush:
    To pulverize, as with herbs and spices used in baking.
      Crust:
    The caramelized crisp or chewy outer layer of a baked product that covers the crumb or more tender inside.
      Cultivation:
    Growing plants or crops.
      Cut or cut in:
    To combine fat into dry ingredients with a pastry
    blender, two knives, or fingers, with the least possible amount
    of blending.

     

    Top     Danger Zone:
    The temperature at which perishable food should not be held or left out of refrigeration for any longer than 2 hours—The Danger Zone for food safety is 40° F. to 140° F.-– perishable foods held in this “zone” for over 2 hours should not
    be eaten.
      Dark chocolate:
    is also bittersweet, semi-sweet, and sweet
    dark chocolate; all contain cacao beans, sugar, an emulsifier
    such as soy lecithin to preserve texture, and flavorings such as
    vanilla but do not contain milk solids. They are distinguished by
    the amount of cocoa powder: 30% (sweet dark) to 70%, 75%, or
    even above 80%, for extremely dark bars. (See Chart, Lab 11)
    Degerminated:
    To remove the germ portion of a grain kernel,
    leaving bran and or endosperm.
     

    Demera Sugar:
    A light brown sugar with large golden crystals
    which is slightly sticky from adhering molasses. It is popular in
    England for tea, coffee, or to top hot cereals.

      Dextrose:
    Also dextroglucose and known as glucose, this
    sugar is the chief source of energy in the body. Glucose is
    chemically considered a simple sugar or monosaccharide and
    naturally occurs and is derived from plant starches such as corn.
      Dissolve:
    Stirring a dry substance into a liquid until solids are no longer remaining. (For example: stirring sugar into water, yeast into water, etc.).
      Divide:
    Equally portioning a dough or batter before shaping or panning prior to baking.
      Dock:
    A baking technique in which regularly spaced holes are poked all over the surface of a dough to promote a crisp baked surface (crackers, pet treats, pie shells, all may be docked before baking).
      Docking:
    Slashing or making incisions in the surface of bread or rolls for proper expansion while baking. Done just before baking.
      Dot:
    To place small dabs or pieces of butter or batter over the
    surface of a food, such as with a pie, just before the top crust is
    added and baking begins.
      Double in bulk:
    Refers to expansion of gluten cells in yeast bread that has risen and is ready to be punched down. Recipe will give a range of time. Varies with dough and environment’s temperature. May be difficult to tell visually: Finger test used
    by bakers: gently press two fingers into dough, if marks remain unchanged, dough is ready to punch.
      Double in size:
    Refers to the final rising (proofing) before bread is baked. This is a visual measurement, subject to guessing. Some bakers make a template for a guide—when bread is a certain height above the pan edge. Look for recipe
    or formula guide: “3/4 proof=half again as large” or “full proof=almost double in size.” May touch side of loaf very gently—if slight print remains, bake.
      Dough:
    A mixture of flour and liquids, and may have other ingredients, that is thick enough to be handled, kneaded or shaped.
      Dough scraper, dough or bench knife:
    A flat, heavy metal blade (about 3 X 5-inches) with straight sides, sharp corners
    and a handle on top edge for moving, kneading, clean-cutting dough, incising, or even cleaning work surfaces.
      Drain:
    To remove liquid from a food product.
      Drizzle:
    To pour a light amount, from a spoon, over food.
      Dissolve
    Stirring a dry substance into a liquid until solids are no longer remaining. (For example: stirring sugar into water, yeast into water, etc.).
      Drop:
    To deposit even portions of dough on a baking sheet using spoon or batter dispenser.
      Dry ingredients:
    Refers to the ingredients in a recipe, such as flours, sugar, leavening, salt, baking cocoa, spices, or herbs, that may be blended before adding to another mixture in the recipe.
      Dry measuring cups:
    Straight-sided, graduated sizes of cups
    with handles attached at the top lip. A home baking measuring tool used in the U.S. The common cup sizes are 1/4, 1/3, 1/2, 1 and 2 cup, and are often nested for ease in storage. They are used to measure a standard amount of dry ingredients, such as flour, sugar, cornmeal, or brown sugar, for home baking recipes. The dry ingredients are spooned into the cup and leveled off with a straight-edged utensil.
      Dutch-processed cocoa:
    Unsweetened baking cocoa that is further processed with an alkali to neutralize cocoa’s natural acidity; Substitution guidelines: 3 tablespoons (18g) Dutchprocessed cocoa = 3 tablespoons (18g) natural cocoa powder plus pinch (1/8 teaspoon) baking soda.
     

    Dust:
    To lightly sprinkle the surface of a food or dough with
    sugar, flour or crumbs. Also to sprinkle the surface used for
    rolling out or shaping dough.

    Top     Eggs:
    In home baking, neither the shell color nor the grade of
    egg matter. The size standard recipes call for is large unless stated
    otherwise. Eggs perform many functions – leavening, binding, thickening, coating or glazing, emulsifying, moisturizing or drying, and adding color, flavor, and nutrients to the finished product. Eggs also may be used to retard crystallization in some frosting.
      Egg wash:
    A thoroughly combined mixture of 1 whole egg, egg yolk, or egg white mixed with 1 tablespoon cold water or milk. This mixture is brushed on the unbaked surface of breads, pastries, or other baked goods just before baking to provide a rich color or gloss to the crust.
      Egg yolk:
    The yellow center portion of a whole egg; an emulsifier contaning lecithin, vitamins, lutein, fat and choline.
      Elasticity:
    Capable of recovering shape after stretching; developed gluten in dough is elastic.
      Electrolyte:
    Dissolved compound capable of carrying an electric current and be broken down into elemental parts.
      Emulsify, emulsifier:
    An ingredient such as an egg that, when beaten with two non-mixing ingredients like oil and vinegar, will hold them in a suspension so they do not separate.
      Enrich:
    To improve the nutritional value of an ingredient or food. Baked goods may be enriched by using milk, enriched flour, whole grain flours, eggs, soy protein or flour.
      Endosperm:
    The starch granules in grain embedded in
    gluten-forming proteins from which flour or meal is produced;
    80-85% of a wheat kernel is endosperm. (See The Whole Kernel
    diagram, p. 170)
      Enriched:
    see also Enrich.
      Equipment:
    Hand or electrical tools and appliances needed to accomplish a task, craft or job.
      Equivalent:
    Equal or the same (Ex: three teaspoons is equivalent to one tablespoon).
    Top     Fermentation:
    A process in bread-baking in which yeast
    enzymes in a dough mixture convert sugars (glucose, fructose
    and maltose) to bud and grow, creating carbon dioxide that
    expands the dough and alcohol as a by-product.
      FIFO:
    Efficient food storage for less waste; means “First In, First
    Out,” ensuring oldest products are used first.
      Flaky:
    Distinct layers of pastry or biscuit formed by using low
    protein flour, fat, and not too much mixing.
      Flatbread:
    Breads that are shaped and baked in thin, flat
    shapes such as pita, naan, focaccia, tortilla, chapati.
      Flour:
    (n.) The finely ground and sifted meal of any of various edible grains. Flour is a major ingredient in most baked goods with wheat flour making up 75 to 100% of the flour in baked goods to produce the desired structure, flavor and volume.

    Other flours with less or no gluten, are also used and are made from grains (corn, barley, rye, oats, sorghum, millet, rice, triticale),
    seeds (amaranth, teff, quinoa, buckwheat, spelt) and legumes or
    vegetables (soy, lentils, peas, potatoes) and used at levels of 2%
    to 25%, based on the total wheat flour weight (Bakers %). View
    flour milling, Kids Zone, www.namamillers.org
      Flour:
    (v.) To lightly dust a surface or dough with flour.
      Foam:
    1. Moist mixture of yeast, water and possibly a pinch of
    sugar that is actively growing and expanding. 2. Beaten egg
    whites beginning to hold air, before peaks are forming.
      Focaccia:
    Italian bakers' snack, from Latin term "focus" or hearth. The focaccia was originally baked on a stone hearth.

     

      Fold:
    To gently combine two or more ingredients or a delicate mixture into a heavier, thicker one by cutting vertically through the mixture and turning it over by sliding the mixing tool across the bottom of the bowl or pan with each turn. To combine without stirring or deflating a mixture.
      Food label:
    Label(s) on a food product providing consumers
    ingredient, net weight, use-by date, allergen, nutrition and
    processor information. Learn more about food labeling at:
    http://www.fda.gov/food/labelingnutrition.
      Formula:
    The recipe or guide a baker uses for a product; read
    all formulas carefully, beginning at the top and reading each
    ingredient, step-by-step.
      Freezer burn:
    Dehydration or drying that occurs on the
    surface of a frozen product if it is improperly wrapped. The
    food is safe to eat but poorer quality. To prevent freezer burn,
    the package must be free of air and sealed airtight. More at:
    National Center for Home Food Preservation,
    www.uga.edu/nchfp/questions/FAQ.
      Fructose:
    Naturally occurring, highly sweet fruit sugar or
    levulose; also found in honey; sweeter than sucrose.
      Fry:
    To cook in heated fat; for doughnuts, fry bread, or funnel
    cakes, heat oil (2-3” deep) to 375˚ F., turn products only once;
    drain well. To reduce fat absorption, substitute 5% of the flour
    weight with defatted soy flour (1 oz. soy flour + 15 oz. wheat
    flour = 1 lb. flour OR 1 tablespoon per cup).
      Fungi:
    Plural for fungus; a special sub-kingdom of plants
    including yeast, that lack chlorophyll and are capable of
    budding to reproduce.
    Top     Garnish:
    To decorate foods by adding other attractive and
    complementary foodstuffs to the food or serving dish.
      Gelatinization:
    (starch) The setting of the structure of a dough
    or batter during baking. Starches gelatinize at a temperature of
    180˚ F. but do not caramelize until baking surface temperature
    reaches 300˚ F.
      Germ:
    Grain embryo; stem and roots sprout from the germ; 2%
    of grain kernel is germ. (See the Whole Kernel, page 170)
      Glucose:
    Also dextroglucose and called dextrose; commonly
    found in grapes, corn starch and honey and is about 30% as
    sweet as sucrose (sugar).
    Gluten:
    The elastic, expandable structure in a dough or batter capable of trapping gas, expanding and when baked becoming part of the structure of baked products. Wheat flour simple proteins (peptides), glutenin and gliadin, combine with water
    when stirred, mixed and kneaded to align and form gluten’s long elastic structure. Gluten containing grains are wheat, rye, triticale, emmer wheat and barley.
      Gluten-free:
    Grains or grain-based foods that do not contain
    gluten or the components of gluten, the peptides glutenin
    and gliadin. For a complete gluten-free list go to Celiac Sprue
    Association’s web-site: www.csaceliacs.org (P: 1-877-CSA-4CSA)

    (See Labs 1 and 10)

    More gluten-free baking resources may be found at:
    www.argostarch.com, www.bettycrocker.com,
    www.bobsredmill.com, www.foodallergy.org/recipes,
    www.hodgsonmill.com, www.homebaking.org,
    www.kingarthurflour.com, www.landolakes.com,
    www.rabbitcreekgourmet.com, www.redstaryeast.com.
     
  • For a complete list visit Celiac Sprue Association's web-site: www.csaceliacs.org or Phone 1-877-272-4272

    Additional gluten-free baking resources and ingredients are found at: www.argostarch.com, www.bettycrocker.com, www.bobsredmill.com, www.foodallergy.org/recipes, www.hodgsonmill.com, www.homebaking.org, www.kingarthurflour.com, www.landolakes.com, www.rabbitcreekgourmet.com, www.redstaryeast.com, www.wheatfoods.org

  •   Gluten sensitivity:
    Although there are no tests for glutensensitivity,
    sufferers often have the same symptoms as
    celiac disease except their small intestine is not damaged.
    Approximately 6% of Americans are thought to be glutensensitive
    and must avoid wheat, barley and rye forever. See Lab
    1, p.10 and www.foodinsight.org
      Gourmet:
    Highest quality food or ingredients, skillfully
    prepared and artfully presented .
      Grade A egg:
    Grade A means the egg will have a
    thick, white, round, well-centered yolk, small air cell and clean,
    uncracked shell. Large eggs are the egg size typically used in
    baking; weighing 1.75 oz/50g, without shell.
      Graham, stone-ground or whole-wheat flour
    Made from either hard, soft or a blend of both wheat classes. All
    are produced by either grinding the whole wheat kernel or
    recombining the white flour, germ and bran to make a whole
    wheat flour. Coarseness may vary, but nutritional value differs
    very little. “Graham” refers to an early proponent of whole
    grain foods, Rev. Sylvester Graham.
      Granola Cereal mixture of toasted rolled oats, barley or other grains, plus dried fruits, seeds, nuts and sweeteners.

     

      Grain:
    1. As in cereal grain; edible seeds or grain produced by
    plants in the grass family. The most popular cereal grains are
    barley, corn, millet, oats, quinoa, rice, rye, sorghum, triticale,
    wheat and wild rice. 2. The appearance of the crumb of baked
    products as determined by the number and size of air pockets,
    the cell structure, and the thickness of cell walls.
      Grate:
    To reduce a food into small bits by rubbing it against the
    sharp teeth of a grating utensil.
      Grease:
    Rub oil, shortening, butter or fat over surface of cooking
    utensil or on a food. May also use a lecithin based, non-fat
    cooking spray, unless bake ware does not recommend it.
      Griddle:
    Heavy-weight flat, rimless pan for baking flatbreads
    using as little fat as possible; flipping is done halfway through
    baking; may be electric or held over heat.
    Top     Halite:
    Rock salt deposits from which salt is mined. (See Lab 10)
      Hard wheat:
    Wheat classes including hard red winter, hard red
    spring, hard white winter, hard white spring and durum wheat;
    hard wheat classes provide the quantity and quality of protein
    bakers desire for bagels, buns, loaves, pasta (durum) and more.
    (See Lab 3)
      Hearth bread:
    Yeast bread baked in round, oval or free form
    on hot, flat baking surfaces in an oven.
      High-altitude baking:
    Adjustments to liquids, leavening
    agents, sugar, and oven temperature are needed at altitudes
    over 3,500 feet. (See Altitude)


      For more information contact:
    Colorado Cooperative Extension Resrouce Center for High Altitude Baking guides:
    Toll Free: (877) 692-9358
    E-mail: CERC@vines.colostate.edu
    Web-site: www.colostate.edu/Depts/CoopExt
     

    High Fructose Corn Syrup (HFCS):
    Primarily used in commercial beverages and foods,
    HFCS is made when corn starch is converted to dextrose-rich syrup; using isomerization, the dextrose-rich corn syrups are further processed to create fructose. The fructose is then blended with dextrose syrup to produce the commercial corn syrups with 42% to 95% fructose.  Fructose is 130 to 180% sweeter than sugar.  

    How Much do You Know about Sugar.  P.13-14. www.sugar.org

      Holding:
    To keep products in the best environment for quality
    serving or long-term storage.
      Honey:
    A thick, sweet liquid produced by bees from flower
    nectar. Color and flavor vary due to the nectar the bees find
    available. Honey develops golden crust color and holds
    moisture in baked goods. It may be substituted one for one
    with less than ½ cup sugar in yeast bread recipes; in quick
    breads, cookies and cakes calling for more than ½ cup sugar,
    adjustments to the liquid or flour will be needed. Emergency
    substitutions for 1 cup honey include:

    1 1/4 cups granulated sugar plus 1/4 cup liquid (use
    whatever liquid is called for in the recipe).

    1/2 cup granulated sugar and 3/4 cup maple syrup, light or
    dark corn syrup or light molasses.
      Honey butter:
    Creamy blend of 1/2 cup butter (4 oz) and 1/2
    cup honey beaten until smooth and spreadable.
      Humectant:
    A moistening ingredient; ingredient that
    promotes retaining moistness in a baked product.
      Humidity:
    The amount of moisture in the air; in baking, the
    percent humidity needed for proofing or baking bread.
      Hydrate:
    To moisten or combine with water or liquids.
    Top     Ice cream salt:
    A coarse rock or solar salt added to ice for cooling when making ice cream. It is not food grade and should not be used in baking. Also, see Salt glossary listing.
      Ingredient:
    Any part of a mixture.
      Ingredient list:
    Ingredients making up a food and appearing
    on a food label in order, most to least.
      Instant-read thermometer:
    A stainless-steel probe thermometer indicating the temperature of a liquid, mixture, dough, or meat almost instantly. It is an excellent baker's tool for yeast bread baking.
      Insulated bakeware:
    Metal bakeware constructed of two layers which are separated by an insulating cushion of air. Benefits of baking with insulated bakeware include even baking and consistent results with less bottom crust browning.

    With insulated baking pans, the oven temperature for cake and brownie mixes should be set 25°F higher. For all other baked goods, use the recommended temperatures, but longer bake times may be needed.

      Invert sugar:
    Sugar syrup exposed to a small amount of acid and heating to break sucrose into glucose and fructose to reduce the size of the crystals. Invert sugar is used for fondant icings for cakes.

     

      Iodized salt:
    Table salt with added sodium iodide to help
    prevent hypothyroidism in regions low on natural iodine.
     
    Top     Jelly-roll pan:
    A rectangular baking pan that features a 1-inch edge and is usually 18 x 13 inches in size - commercially known as a "half-sheet pan." In home baking, sizes vary; a common size listed in recipes is 15½ x 10½ x 1 inch.

    It is preferred for baking sheet cakes, sponge cakes, or bars. (It gets its name because the sponge cake for a jelly roll cake is baked in this pan.)

     

     

      Juice:
    (v). To cut and squeeze or press a fruit to obtain the juice
    for a batter, dough, frosting or drizzle.
     
    Top     Knead:
    See also kneading.
      Kneading:
    To mix dough using a pressing and folding motion, turning and folding the dough onto itself until gluten strands form and the dough is smooth and elastic. View how to knead
    at www.homebaking.org DIY Pizza Crust OR in Bakers Dozen or Baking for Success DVDs.
    Kitchen:
    The place in a home where lives converge, are sustained, and flourish.
      Kosher salt:
    An additive-free, coarse-grained salt, preferred
    by some bakers and used by Jewish Kosher butchers and food
    processors; also called coarse salt.

     

    Top     Lab:
    Short for laboratory; a room or place to accomplish work
    or testing.
      Lactose:
    Milk sugar; the sugar naturally occurring in milk.
      Lean dough:
    A dough prepared with little or no fat, sugar, or milk.
      Leaven:
    also Leavening
    Leavening:
    Ingredients used in baked goods to lighten the
    texture, develop flavor, produce distinctive cell structure
    and increase volume. Leavening agents include heat and
    moisture (steam), beaten eggs or egg whites, baking soda,
    baking powder, cream of tartar, and yeast. Historical terms for
    leavening: Latin = levre = to raise; also called “lifter.”
      Level:
    Straight–edged knife or spatula used to scrape across a dry
    measuring cup in which flour or other dry ingredient is heaped.
      Lifter:
    An old-fashioned term for the leavening or “lifter” in a
    batter or dough.
      Liquid:
    A source of water, fluid or moisture in a batter, dough or
    mixture.
      Liquid measure:
    A clear, hard, plastic or glass cup with a lip for pouring. The cup is usually a pint or quart measuring tool marked with lines to measure liquid ingredients in home baking. It will have lines to mark ounces, milliliters, and 1/8, ¼, 1/3, ½, 2/3, ¾ and 1 cup or more. Liquid ingredients should be measured in this cup, with the cup placed on a flat surface for accuracy in home baking.

     

      Loaf:
    A portion of bread dough baked in one piece or form
      Low fat:
    3 grams of fat or less per serving or reference amount.
      Low Sodium:
    Indicates food will be 140 mg or less per serving.
    Top     Mash:
    To break up into finer, smoother pieces by pressing with
    back of a spoon, a masher or ricer.
      Make-up:
    After fermentation(s), shaping the dough into
    loaves or other shapes. Includes scaling (dividing), rounding,
    intermediate proof, molding and panning the dough pieces.
      Margarine:
    Developed as a butter substitute in the late 1800s, margarine is 80 percent vegetable oil that is partially hydrogenated to hold a solid form. The remaining 20 percent is liquids, flavoring, coloring, and other additives. Margarine may be salted or unsalted.

    For best results in home baking, recipes that call for margarine should use margarine and not a spread, whipped, or reduced-fat form.

      Marshmallow cream:
    A sweet, light, fluffy, fat-free marshmallow-flavored mixture used as an ingredient in candy, pie, dip and dessert recipes providing creamy texture and marshmallow flavor. Learn more: www.solofoods.com
      Meal:
    Grain or seeds milled or ground more coarsely than flour.
      Measuring cups and spoons:
    Containers or spoons that come in graduated sizes and are used to accurately measure dry or liquid ingredients when cooking or baking.
      Melt:
    Heating a solid food such as butter or sugar until it is liquid.
      Melting point:
    The temperature at which a fat or chocolate
    will begin changing from a solid to a liquid state.
      Meringue:
    Stiffly beaten egg white and granulated sugar that
    may be soft or baked hard. Sugar must be beaten into the egg
    whites one tablespoon at a time to dissolve and produce a
    smooth meringue. Meringue tips: www.chsugar.com
      Milk chocolate:
    Sweetened dark chocolate (at least 10 percent chocolate liquor) with additional milk solids (at least 12 percent).
      Millet flour:
    Finely ground flour from whole millet; a starchy, low-gluten flour with a texture similar to rice flour.
      Mill:
    A grain food processing facility producing grain food
    products such as flour, meal, germ, bran, rolled grains, bulgur,
    baking mixes, cereals and a variety of other grain-based
    products. See www.namamillers.org.
      Miller:
    A professional engaged in producing food products
    and ingredients from a variety of grains, seeds and legumes
    for use in baking, foods and animal feeds. See International
    Association of Operative Millers, http://www.iaom.info.
      Mince:
    To cut or chop into very small pieces.
      Mineral:
    A solid substance formed in the earth that is not
    animal or vegetable (Ex: salt, iron)
      Mis en place:
    (Pronounced mee zon plahs)—have all
    ingredients and equipment in place before preparing a recipe.
      Mix:
    To combine two ingredients by stirring or in way that
    makes two or more foods appear as one.
     

    Mixing
    With yeast dough, refers to four stages—pick-up
    period, preliminary development, elasticity development, and final gluten development.

    Stirring, usually with a spoon, until the ingredients
    are well-combined (no individual ingredients can be seen or identified).

     

    Moisten:
    To make moist by adding, brushing or sprinkling with
    a liquid.

      Mold:
    A fuzzy growth of fungus on a bread, vegetables, fruit or
    damp surface; indicates decay or spoilage.
      Molding:
    Follows intermediate proof—dough must be
    relaxed—final shaping step where dough is flattened (sheeted)
    or shaped for loaves, braids, rolls, twists.
      Muscovado Sugar:

    See Barbados Sugar.

    Types of Sugar
    . How Well Do You Know Sugar? P.8   www.sugar.org  
     

    Muffin:
    Small, cake-like sweet or savory leavened breads.

      Muffin mixing method:
    Use of two bowls, mixing fluid ingredients and dry ingredients separately; stirring to combine is done very quickly and with as few stirs as possible to prevent gluten formation. View at: DIY Baking Channel, www.homebaking.org
      Muffin pans:
    Muffin pans come in many sizes and shapes, even "muffin tops." The standard muffin pan called for in many recipes has 6 or 12 cups that measure 2½ inches across the top. For best results, always line with paper liners or grease just the bottoms and lower thirds of the muffin cups. Mini-muffin tins, also called "tea muffins," are popular in 12-cup and 24-cup pan sizes. Also, see Insulated, Nonstick, and Baking pans glossary listings.
      Multi-grain:
    (adj.) Flour, meal, cereal or any grain food using
    two or more grains.
    Top     Net weight:
    Net weight The weight of the contents in a package,
    excluding the packaging weight.
      Nibs:
    Cocoa nibs are simply roasted cocoa beans separated
    from their husks and broken in to small bits; may be used in
    cookies or as a topping in place of nuts.
      No-knead:
    This home baking method refers to yeast breads that require no kneading. They also are called
    "batter breads."
      Nonstick:
    A coating which is either applied through a high temperature process called coil-coating on metal before the pan is formed, or spray coated on after the pan is formed. It may be silicone-based or a PTFE-based (polytetrafluorethylene or teflon) formulation.

    Benefits of nonstick: These vary depending on the coating, but relate to the ease of removal and cleanup of baking pans. Most nonstick coatings darken pans. Look for packaging instructions regarding the lowering of baking time or temperature for best results.

      Nut flour:
    Nut meats, toasted or untoasted, that are finely ground for pastry crusts, breads, cakes, and cookies.
      Nutrition Facts:
    A box on the food label offering serving size and
    basic nutrition information for a food ingredient, recipe or product.
    Learn how to use the Nutrition Facts label at www.fda.gov.
      Nuts:
    The dry fruit of trees, legumes, or seeds; an edible kernel encased in a hard, dry shell. Rich in nutrients, flavor, and texture, nuts provide sensory appeal to baked goods and other menu items. Nuts may be as high as 90 percent fat, but the fat is primarily the healthful, monounsaturated type.

     

    Top     Oats:
    A grain that is toasted, hulled, cleaned, and cooked
    whole (groats), or the groats are steamed, steel-cut, or flattened
    (rolled). Rolled oats, or old-fashioned oats, may be cut further,
    making them quick-cooking. They may be used interchangeably
    in baking and are whole grain. Instant oats may not be used
    interchangeably in baking due to finer cutting and further cooking
    of the starch. Oat flour is groats or rolled oats ground into flour.
      Oat flour:
    Groats or rolled oats ground into flour.
      Oat bran:
    The outer layers of the oat kernel that are particularly high in soluble fiber; good added to baked goods.
      Oils:
    The liquid fat pressed from plants and their nuts or seeds. The oil is extracted either by solvent-extraction or cold-pressed. Common types used in home baking are soybean, safflower, corn, sunflower, canola, and olive oils. No oil derived from a plant contains cholesterol, but they will vary in amounts of poly- and mono-unsaturates and saturated fat.
      Old dough:
    Yeast dough that is overproofed; dough may have
    tripled in volume and fallen.
      Oven:
    An oven may be defined as an enclosed area with
    parts which supply heat and air flow in order to cook food.
    Conventional/thermal ovens use electric elements or gas burners
    to bake, roast, or broil; convention ovens use electric elements
    or gas burners plus the addition of a fan to circulate heated
    air over, under, and around the food. Most electric ovens have
    controls which cycle the lower and upper elements for consistent
    temperatures. Recently, ovens have been introduced which also
    use halogen lights and/or microwave energy to increase the
    cooking speed. Ovens may vary in width from 20 inches to 36
    inches and may be in a free-standing, slide-in, drop-in, or wall
    oven configuration. Ovens can have cleaning options of standard
    clean (clean by hand), self-clean, or continuous clean.
     

    Oven Mitt:
    Thickly padded or heat-insulated large mittens worn to load or remove baked goods from oven.

      Oven-spring:
    When yeast breads first begin to bake, they
    will have a “growth spurt” until the yeast dies (140° F.) and the
    starch gelatinizes (180° F.) to hold the final size and shape.
      Oven proofing:
    Allowing dough to proof beyond a full
    doubling of size; if dough actually proofs and falls again, the
    product will not recover. Product will be very open grained,
    have a crumbly texture, undesirable flavor, pale crust, strong
    aroma and poor keeping quality.
    Top     Packed:
    Refers to measuring brown sugars. Spoon brown sugar
    into dry measuring cup and press down until firmly packed,
    overfilling slightly, then leveling. When dumped out, should
    hold its shape (as when making sand castles).
      Pan:
    Utensil used to hold dough or batter—may be rectangular,
    flat or round; best surface for baking is heavy shiny or darkened
    aluminum for best crust color; glass baking pans require
    adjusted oven temperatures—reduce about 25° F.
      Pancake:
    One of humans’ oldest bread forms, hundreds of
    types are shared cultures; batter may be thick or thin, and is
    baked on a very hot surface for breakfast, lunch, dinner or a
    snack. (Ex: crepes, blinis, hotcakes, flapjacks).
      Panning:
    Placing dough in or on prepared pans. Pans may
    be lined with parchment, oiled, sprayed with pan-release, or
    sprinkled with meal. Make sure the pan is the correct size for
    the amount of batter or dough. NOTE: Some baking pans
    should not be sprayed with lecithin cooking sprays—check
    manufacturer’s care guidelines.
      Pantry:
    Storage space near the kitchen for food, pans,
    ingredients and equipment.
      Parchment paper:
    Sheets of grease and moisture resistant
    paper used in baking to line pans; replaces greasing or spraying
    pans. Products are shaped or distributed directly on the
    paper and are easily removed after baking. Great for making
    disposable pastry bags too.
      Pare:
    To remove the outer covering or skin of fruit or vegetables
    with a small knife or peeler.
      Pastry blender:
    A hand-held U-shaped tool with 5 or 6 sturdy
    parallel wires used to “cut” cold butter or fat into smaller pieces
    in a flour mixture without melting or smearing the butter or fat.
      Pastry filling:
    A savory or sweet mixture prepared to fill a
    pastry dough or crust. See www.argostarch.com and www.
    solofoods.com
      Pastry filling:
    A fine-textured, soft wheat flour with low-gluten and
    high-starch content. It may be bleached, unbleached, or whole
    wheat. Soft red or white wheat may be used to produce this flour.
    Also www.jiffymix.com; www.bobsredmill.com
      Peel:
    Rimless, lightweight board, may have a long handle; used
    to transfer proofed bread to hot baking stone in oven.
      Percentage:
    A part or portion of a whole; (A) Bakers
    percentage = the percent one ingredient is of the total flour
    weight—Ex: Sugar is 5% of the flour weight—(4 oz sugar out of
    5 lbs (80 oz) flour). (B) The number of consumers in a consuming
    group who feel or think something—Ex: 5 out of 100 (5%) think
    the product is too sweet.
      Pie:
    A sweet or savory dish made with one or two crusts and
    filling (pudding, fruit, meat or vegetables).
      Poolish:
    Polish origins, Viennese bakers promoted this preferment
    starter in the nineteenth century.
      Porous:
    May refer to the honeycomb-like structure of white pan
    bread.
      Portion:
    (v.) to evenly divide batter or dough to place on
    prepared baking pans; n: the amount a person is served.
      Preferment:
    Partial (yeast) dough made of flour, water,
    yeast and sometimes salt given a quick mixing and allowed
    to ferment prior to mixing the full dough. Five traditional preferments
    are: poolish (equal weights flour and water); scrap
    dough (old dough–pate fermentee); biga (flour+50-60%
    water+1/2% instant yeast); sponge (flour, yeast, water); mixed
    starter (flour+water+small piece old dough; mimics sourdough).
      Preheat
    Heating the empty oven to
    the recommended temperature
    before placing the product to
    be baked init.
      Proof:
    In bread baking, this term indicates the period of time a product is allowed to rise after it is shaped and placed on or in pans. Products are usually proofed until doubled in size,
    or when a finger, lightly placed on the side of the loaf, leaves an indentation. Products are “proofed” in a humid, draft-free, 95° F. to 100° F. place. (Avoid to warm an environment!) In
    homes, a barely damp, clean, non-terry cloth towel or plastic wrap sprayed with pan spray may be lightly placed over the product to prevent the dough from crusting (drying). Some ovens
    have a proofing feature. Follow the manufacturer’s use guide.
      Protein:
    Comprised of amino acids, proteins are an essential
    nutrient group; in baking flour, “high protein” refers to the
    “strength” of the flour to produce gluten, comprised of two
    amino acids, glutenin and gliadin for bread and pasta products.
    Low protein flour will be used for soft, tender products (cakes,
    biscuits, cookies, pastry).
      Pumpernickel:
    A medium- to coarsely ground, rye flour, light brown in color. It may be labeled "medium rye." A mixture of rye and wheat flour used to produce a distinctive bread. Molasses are usually used to add color and flavor.
      Punch down:
    In reference to bread dough - when dough has doubled in size or when a dent remains after two fingers are lightly pressed ½ inch into the dough, make a fist and push it into the center of the dough. Pull the edges of the dough to the center and turn the dough over. Cover and let rest or rise again before shaping.
      Puree:
    To mash, process or sieve cooked fruit or vegetables to
    form a thick smooth liquid. Purees may be used to substitute
    for ¼ to of the oil or fat in some baked products.
    Top     Quick bread
    Bread that is quick to make because it doesn’t
    require kneading or rising time. It is usually chemically
    leavened.
      Quinoa flour:
    A gluten-free flour made from grinding quinoa grain. It is highly nutritious and yields a tender, moist crumb in cookies, pancakes, waffles, and fruitcakes.

     

    Top     Rancid:
    Having the bad smell or taste of spoiled (oxidized) fats
    or oils; nuts may also be rancid; rancid fats are a carcinogen
    and should not be consumed.
      Ratio:
    (a) The relation of one thing to another in size or
    amount—Ex: (A) crepe batter is 1 part flour to 1 part milk. (B)
    The quotient of one number divided by another–(Ex: “one out
    of 4 consumers prefers strawberry” so one divided by four is ¼,
    the fraction of the whole group strawberry lovers represent; or,
    1 divided by 4 is 25%).
     

    Raw Sugar:
    About 98 percent sucrose and tan or brown
    in appearance; it is a coarse, granulated solid obtained on
    evaporation of clarified sugar cane juice. It is not considered fit
    for direct use as food or a food ingredient by the USDA. See
    www.sugar.org


    Types of Sugar. How Well Do You Know Sugar. P. 8. www.sugar.org

      Reconstitute:
    To restore a former condition by adding water.
    Dried, minced vegetables, such as onions or leeks, should be
    reconstituted before adding to baked goods.
      Reduced sodium:
    A food has reduced the sodium content by
    25%; there is 25% less sodium per serving than the original food.
      Red wheat:
    In the U.S., wheat is classified into six classes —
    three of the classes have a bran coat that is considered “red” in
    color. These classes are hard red winter wheat, hard red spring
    wheat, and soft red winter wheat. Also, see glossary listing for
    White wheat. Learn more: Urban Wheat Field,
    www.wheatfoods.org
      Resources:
    Materials, time, money and abilities available for
    use that can be drawn upon for aid or to take care of a need.

     

      Rest time:
    After kneading, punching or rounding, dough
    benefits from a brief (10 to 30 minutes)
    intermission in handling. The dough will be
    more easily rolled or shaped. Keep dough
    covered with bowl or plastic food wrap
    sprayed with pan spray while it rests so
    “skin” doesn’t form. Yeast dough: called an
    intermediate proof.
      Ripe test (yeast dough):
    After the first “rise” or fermentation, the ripe test is used to
    see if dough is ready to be punched—or has
    “doubled.” The second ripe test is used to
    see if shaped loaf or rolls are ready to bake.
      Ripe test (first test):
    First rise (or Fermentation).
    Many factors, including the recipe, room
    temperature, and humidity, will determine
    how long it takes for your dough to rise. Yeast
    dough is considered “ripe” when it has risen
    enough–usually doubling in size. The ripe
    test determines if the dough is ready to be
    punched down and shaped. Gently stick two
    fingers in the risen dough up to the second
    knuckle and then take them out.
    If the indentations remain, the dough is “ripe” and ready for
    punch down. If not, cover and let the dough rise longer. Repeat
    test.
      Ripe test (second test):
    Second rise (or Proof)
    The ripe test to determine if a proofed loaf is ready for the oven
    is a little different than the method used after the first rise. Simply
    touch the side of the dough lightly with your fingertip. If the
    indentation remains, the loaf is ripe and ready for the oven.
    Source: Guidelines and photos courtesy of Red Star Yeast—www.
    redstaryeast.com.
      Rock salt:
    Grayish, chunky, unrefined salt mined from halite;
    not recommended for table or cooking use; used most often for
    freezing ice cream.
      Roll:
    1. Small dough piece (2.0-4.5 oz), smooth and rounded with
    dough skin side up, pinched seam at bottom 2. To use a rolling
    pin to roll out a dough piece from center out forming a flat dough
    piece of even thickness for cookie cutting, pie crust or other
    products.
      Rolled oats:
    Whole grain oats or groats steamed and flattened
    with heavy rollers; quick-cooking rolled oats are cut into smaller
    pieces after rolling flat in thin flakes; other grains may be rolled
    too—barley, rye, wheat and more.
      Red wheat:
    In the U.S., wheat is classified into six classes —
    three of the classes have a bran coat that is considered “red” in
    color. These classes are hard red winter wheat, hard red spring
    wheat, and soft red winter wheat. Also, see glossary listing for
    White wheat. Learn more: Urban Wheat Field,
    www.wheatfoods.org
      Room temperature:
    In baking, ingredients at room
    temperature may be 62° to 70° F.
      Rounding:
    Shaping dough so that a smooth surface encases the
    dough, sealing it as it rests.
      Rye flour:
    Milled from rye grain, the flour is darker, heavier, and
    low in gluten. It is sold as light, dark, or medium for home baking.
    The light and medium rye flour have most of the bran removed.
    Dark rye flour is whole grain. Also, see www.homebaking.org/
    glossary.
    Top     Salt:
    (Sodium Chloride – NaCl) can be produced three ways: Open-air evaporation of salt brine in shallow ponds (sea salt). By mining of rock salt deposits. By boiling and evaporation of
    higher purity brine. Salt contributes to flavor in baked goods, and controls fermentation of yeast in breads. Coarse grades are
    available for use as toppings on soft pretzels and other specialty breads. Also, visit the Salt Institute at wwww.saltinstitute.org.
      Salinity:
    The level of saltiness in a food, water or product.
      Salt substitute:
    Usually potassium chloride in granular form, intended for lowering sodium intake; generally bitter in taste. It is not recommended for baking.
      Sanitary:
    Free from dirt or germs that could cause illness or
    disease; clean. Resources: www.cleaninginstitute.org; www.
    fightbac.org
      Saturated fats:
    Fats that are solid enough at room temperature (70° F.) to hold their shape; usually animal fats, though palm or coconut oil are also included.
      Sauté:
    Cooking or browning food in a small amount of hot oil or fat until softened and the flavors are released.
      Savor:
    (n.) Full of flavor; (v.) take time to enjoy the full flavor of
    food.
      Scald:
    To bring liquids to a temperature just below boiling so that
    tiny bubbles form at the edge of the pan or cup to stop enzymatic
    activity that retards gluten development. Note: Yeast breads:
    Fluid milk should still be scalded, the “skin” skimmed off and then
    cooled OR use a “high heat” dry milk for baking yeast breads.
      Scale:
    (n.) Kitchen device to accurately record the weight of an
    ingredient or food; bakers use for consistent results; scales may
    be balance, spring or electronic: (v) To weigh pieces of dough for
    equal portioning before shaping or batter before distributing in
    pans.
      Scaling:
    Dividing batter or dough by weight for the most
    accurate portioning into pans or pieces. Equal division of dough
    or batter between pans is very important for even baking and
    browning. Note: Scaling should be done quickly to avoid loss of
    leavening or over-aging of dough.
      Scoop:
    Dipper tool for portioning batter or dough.
    Common sizes:

    #12=1/3 cup or 2 ½ to 3 oz (muffins)
    #24=2 2/3 tbsp. or 1 ½ to 1 ¾ oz (cream puffs)
    #16=1/4 cup or 2 – 2 ¼ oz (muffins)
    #30=2 tbsp. or 1 to 1 ½ oz (large drop cookies)
    #20=3 tbsp. or 1 ¾ to 2 oz (cupcakes)
    #40=1 ½ tbsp. or ¾ oz (drop cookies)
    #60=1 tbsp. or ½ oz (small drop cookies)
      Scone:
    A Scottish biscuit-like bread made with oats, flour, butter
    and leavened with baking powder; savory or sweet and frequently
    served with breakfast or tea.
      Score:
    To make small shallow cuts on the surface of a food.
      Scratch baking
    Baking method that begins with measuring
    basic ingredients such as flour, sugar, butter and leavening. It
    requires a recipe rather than convenience products, like mixes.
      Sealing:
    Pinching the edges of dough that are brought together;
    securing or closing two sides of dough, packaging or product
    edges.
      Sea (solar) salt:
    Salt captured by the evaporation of sea water; the type
    used down through the ages.
      Season:
    To add herbs, spices, citrus zest, extracts or other
    ingredients to food for flavoring.
      Seasoned salt:
    Regular salt combined with a flavoring (Ex:
    onion, garlic, celery).
      Seize:
    Refers to melting chocolate that becomes a thick,
    lumpy mass due to even a small amount of steam or moisture
    getting into the melting chocolate. Chocolate may be unseized
    (although texture is still affected) by stirring in 1 tablespoon or
    less of vegetable oil, cocoa butter or clarified butter per 6 oz. of
    chocolate until smooth.
      Self-rising cornmeal:
    One of the first convenience baking
    mixes. It is a blend of cornmeal, flour, baking powder, and
    salt. Approximate equivalent = 1½ cups cornmeal, ½ cup allpurpose
    flour, 1 tablespoon baking powder, and 1 teaspoon
    salt. See www.hodgsonmill.com; www.house-autry.com; www.
    hudsoncream.com; www.marthawhite.com; www.shawneemilling.
    com www.sunflourflour.com
      Self-rising flour:
    One of the first “convenience mixes,” selfrising
    flour is a blend of all-purpose flour, baking powder, and
    salt. When self-rising flour is used in a standard flour recipe,
    the baking powder and salt are then omitted. Approximate
    equivalent = 1 cup all-purpose flour, 1½ teaspoons baking
    powder, and ½ teaspoon salt. Resources: Types of Flour,
    www.wheatfoods.org; Members’ links, www.homebaking.org
      Semi-sweet chocolate:
    Baking chocolate that contains
    between 15 percent and 35 percent chocolate liquor, cocoa
    butter, sugar, lecithin, and vanilla. It may be used interchangeably
    in some recipes that call for bittersweet or sweet chocolate, but is
    not interchangeable with milk chocolate. (See Chart, Lab 11)
      Semolina flour:
    Flour produced by further grinding semolina (granules) made from durum wheat. Specialty breads sometimes call for part semolina or semolina flour. Also called pasta flour.
      Separate:
    To remove the yolk from the white of the egg.
      Serving:
    A specific amount of food adequate for nutrition
    management and health
      Shaping or molding:
    Follow recipe directions for how to divide and shape dough (sheet dough, sticks, loaves, twist, braid, pretzel, smooth ball, etc.)
      Sheet cake:
    A type of flat cake baked in a sheet pan, frosted
    and cut-into squares or triangles.
      Shell:
    (n.) The outer protection of an egg (v.) remove the egg
    from the shell (“shell the egg”).
      Shortening:
    A solid fat made by hydrogenating vegetable oils
    –a chemical process of completing hydrogen bonds to make
    the fats solid at room temperature.
      Shred:
    To rub large food across medium to large grater holes
    or slits to make small pieces.
      Sift:
    To move flour or sugar through a sieve (sifter) to
    incorporate air and insure accurate measurement. Food History
    Note: “Weevily flour” was not thrown out—sifting was done to
    remove bugs as well as lumps from flour.

    Sifting notes: Today most flour is pre-sifted and needs only
    to be stirred until light, scooped into the measuring cup
    until heaping and leveled. Sift only if recipe directs you to
    do so prior to measuring—this alters the volume of the flour
    or powdered sugar measured. Blend dry ingredients (flour,
    leavening, salt) with a wire whisk, not a sifter, for best results.
      Simmer:
    To cook in liquid that is barely at the boiling point and
    small bubbles rise below the surface.
      Skim:
    To remove a substance from the surface of a liquid. Ex:
    “Skim” the milk after scalding.
      Slack dough:
    Dough that is too fluid due to underdevelopment
    or too much water/too little flour.
      Slash:
    also Slashing
      Slashing:
    also called “docking;” making incisions in the surface
    of bread or rolls for proper expansion while baking. Done just
    before baking.
      Skim:
    To remove a substance from the surface of a liquid. Ex:
    “Skim” the milk after scalding.
      Snail:
    A round loaf made by shaping a long smooth strip of
    rich sweet bread dough in a snail shape and proofing in a round
    layer cake pan.
     

    Sodium guidelines:
    2400 mg or less per day (American Heart
    Association, www.heart.org).

    Sodium Label Guide

    Sodium-free–less than 5 milligrams of sodium per serving

    Very low-sodium–35 milligrams or less per serving

    Low-sodium–140 milligrams or less per serving

    Reduced sodium–usual sodium level is reduced by 25%

    Unsalted, no salt added or without added salt–made
    without the salt that’s normally used, but still contains the
    sodium that’s a natural part of the food itself

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration and U.S.
    Department of Agriculture state that an individual food that
    has the claim “healthy” must not exceed 480 mg sodium
    per reference amount. Source: www.heart.org

     

      Soft wheat:
    Refers to soft red winter wheat, soft red spring
    wheat, and soft white wheat; “soft” wheat will contain lower
    protein or gluten strength making it especially suited for
    pastries, cookies, cakes, flat breads, quick breads and more.
    (See Lab 3)
      Sour dough:
    also Sour dough starter.
      Sour dough:
    Bread with a slightly sour tangy flavor created by
    using sour dough starter (levain)—a batter or dough that has
    colonies of sour dough yeasts and bacteria (microflora). Learn
    more about sourdough at: www.redstaryeast.com;
    www.breadworld.com; and www.kingarthurflour.com.
      Sour salt:
    Also called citric salt or citric acid and is extracted
    from citrus fruits; adds tartness to traditional foods like Borscht.
      Sponge and dough method:
    Two stage yeast bread mixing process.

    Step 1: (Sponge/Pre-ferment): Mix 60 to 100% of flour and all
    of liquid and yeast for 4-6 minutes; let ferment at 75° F. for 3-6
    hours. (Sponge temperature=72-78˚ F.—after fermentation, rises
    10˚ F.)

    Step 2: Add remaining ingredients and mix to develop gluten
    (8 to 12 minutes). Ferment again 0 to 40 minutes at 80-85˚ F.
    Punch down the dough and proceed to shape/make up.
      Spread:
    The amount a dough or batter flattens out on a baking
    pan before the oven heat sets the proteins and starch;
      Spreads:
    Products in sticks or tubs that are less than 80
    percent fat. Lower fat products (60 percent or less fat) are not
    recommended for baking due to their water content.
      Sprinkle
    Scattering particles of sugar or toppings over a surface, like frosting, cake or bread.
      Stabilize:
    To make resistant to change in condition or position; set.
      Stale:
    No longer fresh; poor quality made by being kept too
    long or stored in the wrong environment (See Handling Yeast
    Breads guide in Appendix).
      Standard:
    In home baking, this refers to recipes, measuring tools, ingredients, methods, and equipment that are used to produce a defined product with consistent results to assist manufacturers or consumers.
      Staple:
    The chief item or most important items made, grown or sold in a particular place, region, country, etc.
      Starch:
    70 to 75% of flour is starch. During milling a small
    portion are damaged. Quality wheat and short extraction flour
    contain fine quality starch granules and protein important in
    mixing, dough conditioning water absorption, fermentation and
    quality crumb formation.
      Starter:
    A mixture of flour, water, yeast and sugar that is allowed to ferment in a warm place until foamy. A portion of the starter is used (about 2 cups) in place of a package of yeast in breads, usually after "feeding" the mixture with additional flour and water. Starters are kept in the refrigerator after initial development and "fed" every two weeks.
      Steam:
    To cook in steam, with or without pressure, as with
    steam bread or Chinese dumplings.
     

    Stevia:

    Also known as sweetleaf; a naturally occurring sweetener native to Central and South America; 400 times sweeter than sugar. See www.fda.gov, dominosugar.com and chsugar.com for more information.

      Stir
    Using a spoon to mix ingredients with a circular or figure-eight motion.
      Stoneground flour or meal:
    Grain ground into flour between stones. It may be coarse or fine and is usually whole grain.
     

    Straight dough
    All (yeast dough) ingredients are mixed
    together in the order the formula or recipe directs until a
    smooth, stretchy dough is formed. Dough should be about 80-
    82° F. when mixed. It is then fermented for 1 to 2 hours at 80-
    85° F., punched and so on.

    No-time straight dough
    Same method, but oxidizing
    and reducing agents are added so very little fermentation
    is needed. In home baking, higher water temperatures
    (up to 130° F.) are used with fast rising yeast to make “notime”
    yeast dough (10 minute rising time).

      Strain:
    To separate solid from liquid (as in clarifying butter).
      Structure:
    Composition and framework of a product.
      Sucrose:
    A crystalline, water soluble sugar naturally occurring
    in sugar cane, sugar beets, and sorghum; widely used in baking,
    sucrose is sweeter than glucose and not as sweet as fructose.
     

    Sugar:
    Sugar or sucrose is a carbohydrate occurring naturally in every fruit and vegetable in the plant kingdom. It is the major product of photosynthesis, the process by which plants transform the sun's energy into food. Sugar for home baking is produced in greatest quantities from sugar cane and sugar beets

    • Granulated sugar: Fine or extra-fine white sugar crystals. Often referred to as "white sugar" in home baking.
    • Brown sugar: Sugar crystals contained in a molasses syrup with natural flavor and color components.
    • Dark and light brown sugars may be substituted according to individual preferences for product color or taste.
    • Confectioners' sugar: Also called powdered sugar. See glossary listing.
    • Raw sugar: About 98 percent sucrose and tan or brown in appearance; it is a coarse, granulated solid obtained on evaporation of clarified sugar cane juice. It is not considered fit for direct use as food or a food ingredient by the USDA.
    • Turbinado sugar: Raw sugar refined to a light tan color by washing in a centrifuge under sanitary conditions. Surface molasses is removed in the washing process and is closer to refined sugar than raw.

    Visit The Sugar Association at www.sugar.org.

    Top     Table salt:
    Also called granulated salt, it is produced by boiling and evaporation of brine. It may be iodized and contains anti-caking agents.
      Teamwork:
    The coordinated effort of people working together.
      Temperature:
    The intensity of heat in a mixture, baked
    product, or oven; measured in degrees Fahrenheit (°F) in home
    baking in the United States.
      Texture:
    Indicates the appearance of a cut portion of bread or cake.
     

    Thicken:
    Make a liquid dense by adding an ingredient like
    cornstarch, egg yolk, tapioca, flour, rice or potato starch or
    flour; also to bind.

      Toss:
    To mix ingredients lightly by lifting and dropping with a
    spoon, or spoon and fork..
      Twist:
    Turn two strands or sections in opposite directions
      Turbinado sugar:
    Raw sugar that has been refined to a light tan color by washing it in a centrifuge to remove surface molasses. Types of Sugar. How Well Do You Know Sugar?
    www.sugar.org
    Top    

    Ultragrain Flour:
    Flour 100% whole wheat flour made by using a
    special flour milling process developed to produce a lightercolored,
    ultra smooth texture whole grain wheat flour with the
    texture of white flour. Ultragrain® flour may be 100% whole
    white wheat flour/All-purpose/Ultragrain flours blended. Learn
    more at www.ultragrain.com/eaglemills.

      Underproofed dough:
    Young dough; dough not allowed to raise enough before baking.
      Underproofed loaves or rolls:
    Shaped bread or rolls which have not reached the desired height or volume before they are baked.
      Unleavened:
    A word to describe breads, cakes, or other baked goods that do not use a leavening agent, such as baking powder, baking soda, yeast, or cream of tartar.
      Unbleached flour:
    Flour that is bleached naturally as it ages;
    no maturing agents are used in the milling process. It may be
    used interchangeably with bleached flours and has no nutritive
    differences.
      Unsaturated fats:
    Refers to vegetable oils that are fluid at room temperature or the fats in plant-based foods such as nuts, seeds, avocados, olives.
      Unsweetened chocolate:
    Dark baking chocolate containing no sugar or milk solids.
    Top     Value added:
    Ingredients that when included in or added to a product will increase the nutritional, market or consumer value of a baked good.
     

    Vegetable Oil:
    See oil.

      Vegetable shortening:
    Vegetable oil (soybean or cottonseed)
    that is processed into a solid fat. It is 100% fat with no water,
    milk fat, or other non-fat solids added. It is nearly flavorless
    and is used for imparting flakiness and tenderness. Most solid
    shortenings are now trans-fat free.
      Vent:
    To leave an opening through which steam can escape in
    the covering of a food.
    Top    

    Water:
    Very hard water and soft water create problems for
    baked goods. Tap water of medium hardness and without
    noticeable chlorination or other off odors is suitable.
    Bottled water may be used in very hard water regions. (Soft
    water=15-50 ppm; Medium hard=50-100 ppm; Hard=100-200
    ppm; Very hard=over 200 ppm).

     
     

    Water content:
    The amount or percentage water is of the
    total weight of an ingredient or product.

    (Ex: a 4 oz sweet potato is 80% water or 3.2 oz water).

     
        Weigh:
    To use a scale to determine the weight of ingredients,
    dough pieces, the baked product or net weight.
      Wheat-allergic:
    People who have an IgE-mediated response
    to wheat protein (not necessarily the gluten portion). These
    individuals must only avoid wheat, not other grains. Most
    children who are allergic outgrow the allergy. Food Allergy
    Network, www.foodallergy.org; Members’ links,
    www.homebaking.org
     

    Wheat flour:
    Flour milled from soft (lower protein) red or white
    wheat for cakes, pastries, waffles, and other products, or hard
    white or red wheat for pizza crust, yeast breads, bagels, and
    some rolls or hearth breads. High-protein durum wheat will
    be used for flour or semolina for some specialty breads, but
    is primarily a pasta wheat. Home baking (called “family flour”
    in the milling industry) wheat flour may be: Unbleached or
    bleached all-purpose, cake, pastry, whole wheat, stone-ground
    or graham, ultra-grain and bread flour. See Members’ links,
    www.homebaking.org

     
      Whip
    Beating a food lightly and rapidly with a mixer, whisk or beater to incorporate air and increase volume.
      Whisk:
    To beat ingredients together, using a wire whip or whisk,
    until well blended.
      White chocolate:
    A mixture of sugar, cocoa butter, milk solids, lecithin, and vanilla. If cocoa butter is not mentioned, the product is confectionary or summer coating, not white chocolate. It is not a true chocolate due to no chocolate liquor present. Chips or pieces and coating chunks are popular home baking ingredients.
      White wheat:
    In the U.S., wheat is classified into six classes - three classes have a bran coat that is considered "white" or pale to amber in color. These classes are soft white wheat, hard white wheat, and durum wheat. Also, see Red wheat in the glossary listing.
      Whole grain
    Whole grain Using whole kernel or ground whole kernels of a grain (barley, corn, oats, wheat, soy, rye) in a food at 51% or more of the flour weight. There must be more flour than sugar and fat for the food to be a“grain food” product. 16 grams of whole grain flour or meal per serving is 1/3 of the daily need for whole grain in a diet. Learn more: www.wholegrainscouncil.org or www.bellinstitute.com.
      Whole-wheat flour:
    Flour produced from the whole kernel of wheat. Also called graham flour. It is usually produced in flour mills but may be ground in a mill using a stone grinding process.

     

     

    Whole-white wheat flour:

    The classes of U.S. wheat grown are red, white or durum (pasta) wheat. Any wheat can be used to produce a whole wheat flour. Whole white wheat flour is a
    flour produced from soft (lower protein) or hard (higher protein) varieties of white wheat. Learn more: www.farmerdirectfoods. com or www.stonebuhr.com or www.washingtongrainalliance. org Go to Education/Consumers www.kswheat.com Go to Consumers, then click on Wheat Facts.

    Top     XXX or XXXX confectioners' sugar:
    Indicates the fineness of the powdered sugar. Four X is slightly finer, but both may be used interchangeably. It does not affect whether sifting is required - go by the recipe's directions.

     

    Top     Yeast
    Baker’s yeast (differs from Brewer’s yeast) refers to a
    single-celled fungi in the species Saccharomyces cerevisiae,
    which ferments sugar. The by-products of this fermentation
    are principally carbon dioxide and alcohol. The carbon dioxide
    raises or expands the bread dough.

    Dry yeast
    will be 1.5% to 4% of the weight of the total flour
    in a formula. (Bakers Percent) TIP: Always use a thermometer
    to measure liquid temperature before adding it to or with the
    yeast. Yeast will grow slowly under refrigeration 33 to 40º F.,
    more actively at room temperatures, does not die if frozen,
    but will die in temperatures above 140º F.

    Baking yeast may be active dry (dissolve according to
    package directions before adding to other ingredients) ,
    instant, fast-rising, fresh or cream

    Fast-rising (professionals use an instant variety—may be mixed
    directly with all ingredients and ice-cold to 130º F. water used).
    Also called “bread machine” yeast on some packages.

    Fresh or compressed yeast also may be available in some
    supermarkets refrigerator cases. One package (¼ ounce/7
    grams) dry yeast is about 2¼ teaspoons and equals one
    0.6-ounce cake of compressed fresh yeast. Learn more:
    www.breadworld.com or www.redstaryeast or
    www.kingarthurflour.com.
     
      Yeast temperature:
    Refer to Appendix guide, Temperatures
    for Yeast Bread Production and Handling.
      Yield:
    The amount of product obtained as a result of a given
    amount of ingredients.
    Top     Zest:
    The fragrant, flavorful, thin, outer skin of citrus fruit which is removed with a citrus zester, vegetable peeler, or paring knife and used to contribute flavor to baked goods.

     

      References:
    HBA member definitions
    Lansky, Vicki. Baking Soda. Over 500 Fabulous Fun and Frugal Uses
    Herbst, Sharon Tyler. Food Lover's Companion. The Food Lover's Tiptionary
    Greenspan, Dorie. Baking with Julia
    Sultan, William J. Practical Baking